Heart failure case study

Next Chambers of the Heart The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a fist, located just behind and slightly left of the breastbone. The heart pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins called the cardiovascular system.

Heart failure case study

Quinapril prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion.

Morphine Kills in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure - REBEL EM - Emergency Medicine Blog ICU Length of Stay days 3. The authors controlled for factors such as BUN, systolic BP, age, creatinine, dyspnea at rest, chronic dialysis, heart rate, inotrope or vasodilator use, elevated troponin, ejection fraction, use of morphine as adjunct for endotracheal intubation, and across all risk groups the use of morphine was associated with markedly increased mortality that was statistically significant Also, to control for the fact that repeat hospitalizations vs unique patients could have occurred, the mortality analysis was repeated looking at unique patients which made for a smaller final analysis of 30, patients and the increased mortality associated with morphine use in ADHF remained statistically significant.
Latest news Are there other surgeries that can be done for people with heart failure?

Previous ARBs Class Summary Angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs are reasonable first-line therapy for patients with mild to moderate heart failure symptoms and left ventricular LV dysfunction when patients are already taking these agents for other indications.

The use of ARBs increases survival and decreases hospitalization rates, but these agents are not superior to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ACEIs. ARBs can also be used as add-on therapy for patients who have refractory heart failure symptoms despite optimal heart failure therapy.

View full drug information Losartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II at tissue receptor sites. It may induce more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, and it does not affect the response to bradykinin less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema.

These agents are used in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. Losartan has not been demonstrated to improve survival in heart failure. View full drug information Valsartan is a prodrug that produces direct antagonism of angiotensin II receptors. It displaces angiotensin II from the AT1 receptor and may lower blood pressure by antagonizing AT1-induced vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, catecholamine release, arginine vasopressin release, water intake, and hypertrophic responses.

It may induce more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, does not affect the response to bradykinin, and is less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema.

It is used in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. Valsartan at a target dose of mg twice daily has been shown to improve survival in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. View full drug information Candesartan blocks the vasoconstriction and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II.

Use candesartan in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. Candesartan at a target dose of 32 mg daily has been shown to improve survival in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. View full drug information Irbesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II at tissue receptor sites.

Irbesartan has not been shown to improve survival in heart failure. View full drug information Azilsartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II at tissue receptor sites.

Previous Inotropic Agents Class Summary Inotropic agents such as milrinone, digoxin, dopamine, and dobutamine are used to increase the force of cardiac contractions. Intravenous positive inotropic agents should only be used in inpatient settings — and then only in patients who manifest signs and symptoms of low cardiac output syndrome volume overload with evidence of organ hypoperfusion.

View full drug information Milrinone is a type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases inotropy, chronotropy, and lusitropy, acting via cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP to increase the intramyocardial adenosine triphosphate ATP.

It is a potent vasodilator agent, being a venous and arterial vasodilator, and it is used in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Milrinone can be used in the presence of a beta-blocker. Milrinone is thought to create less tachycardia, because it does not directly stimulate beta-receptors. View full drug information Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects, in addition to indirect effects, on the cardiovascular system.

It acts directly on cardiac muscle, increasing myocardial systolic contractions. Indirect actions result in increased carotid sinus nerve activity and enhanced sympathetic withdrawal for any given increase in mean arterial pressure. It is used to improve symptoms associated with HF by enhancing cardiac contractility.

Although digoxin does not confer a survival benefit, it has reduced the number of hospitalizations that occur as a result of worsening heart failure. View full drug information Dopamine is a naturally occurring catecholamine that acts as a precursor to norepinephrine.

It stimulates both adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. The hemodynamic effect is dose dependent.Study Design. The African-American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with patients recruited at .

Heart failure is a complex syndrome that involves both acute and chronic processes. Acute heart failure has various presentations. It . NICE draft guideline on chronic heart failure in adults: diagnosis and management. 1 1 A Webinar with Tracy Walton, MS, LMT Congestive Heart Failure and Massage Therapy Part 5 of the Common Cardiovascular Conditions Webinar Series.

British Society for Heart Failure

A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Heart failure is a complex syndrome that involves both acute and chronic processes.

Acute heart failure has various presentations.

Heart failure case study

It can be characterized by rapidly developing.

HeFSSA | Heart Failure Society of South Africa